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## A Sublinear Sudoku Solution in cP Systems and its Formal Verification

Authors: Yezhou Liu, Radu Nicolescu, Jing Sun, Alec Henderson
Keywords: cP~systems, P~systems, Sudoku problem, NP-complete problem, Formal verification.

### Abstract

Sudoku is known as a NP-complete combinatorial number-placement puzzle. In this study, we propose the first cP~system solution to generalised Sudoku puzzles with $m \times m$ cells grouped in $m$ blocks. By using a fixed constant number of rules, our cP~system can solve all Sudoku puzzles in sublinear steps. We evaluate the cP~system and discuss its formal verification.

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